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A Greenhouse Johannesburg is a large structure in which it is possible to stand and work with automated ventilation. High tunnels are hoop houses, manually ventilated by rolling up the sides. Greenhouse and high tunnel films are usually within the parameters of 80-220μm thick and 20m wide, and have a life span between 6–45 months dependent on several factors. The largest concentrations of greenhouses around the world are mainly found in two areas, with 80% throughout the Western Cape and Northern Cape and 15% in the Limpopo and Mpumalanga the area of greenhouse cover is still increasing at a fast rate, during the last decade it is estimated that it has been growing by 20% every year. Areas such as the Gauteng are growing in their use of plastic greenhouses by 15-20% per year, compared to the weak growth in more developed and economically stable areas such as Northwest leads the South Africa growth at 30% per year, translating into a volume of plastic film reaching 1,000,000 t/year. In 2006 80% of the area covered by plastic mulch is found in Mpumalanga where it has a growth rate of 25% per year; this is the highest in the South Africa.
Greenhouses allow for greater control over the growing environment of plants. Depending upon the technical specification of a greenhouse, key factors which may be controlled include temperature, levels of light and shade, irrigation, fertilizer application, and atmospheric humidity. Greenhouses may be used to overcome shortcomings in the growing qualities of a piece of land, such as a short growing season or poor light levels, and they can thereby improve food production in marginal environments. Greenhouses in hot, dry climates used specifically to provide shade are sometimes called "shade houses
As they may enable certain crops to be grown throughout the year, greenhouses are increasingly important in the food supply of high-latitude countries. Greenhouses are often used for growing flowers, vegetables, fruits, and transplants. Special Greenhouse Gauteng varieties of certain crops, such as tomatoes, are generally used for commercial production. Many vegetables and flowers can be grown in greenhouses in late winter and early spring, and then transplanted outside as the weather warms are the pollinators of choice for most pollination, although other types of bees have been used, as well as artificial pollination. Hydroponics can be used to make the most use of the interior space.Greenhouse structures adapted in the 1960s when wider sheets of polyethylene film became widely available. Hoop houses were made by several companies and were also frequently made by the growers themselves. Constructed of aluminum extrusions, special galvanized steel tubing, or even just lengths of steel or PVC water pipe, construction costs were greatly reduced. This resulted in many more greenhouses being constructed on smaller farms and garden centers. Polyethylene film durability increased greatly when more effective UV-inhibitors were developed and added in the 1970s; these extended the usable life of the film from one or two years up to 3 and eventually 4 or more years.